چهارشنبه 1 اسفند 1386
برای دیدن متن کامل مقاله روی ادامه مطلب کلیک کنید ...
Throughout much of its pre-Islamic history,
Azerbaijani scholars regard both Media and
Turks in pre-Islamic Azerbaijan
The successive migration and settlement of nomadic and semi-nomadic proto-Turkic and Turkic peoples from Central Asia continued to be a familiar pattern in the history of Azerbaijan since ancient times from the era of Media and Albania up until the Islamic age and the establishment of modern Azerbaijan by the Oghuz Turks in the 10th century A.D. Throughout the history of pre-Islamic Azerbaijan, Turkic peoples had lived in the land for centuries, although they were not fully unified. The Huns, Khazars, Bulgars, Barsils, Sabirs, Gokturks, Kutugurs, and Oghuz had been some of the Turkic people who had dwelled in
Throughout its pre-Islamic history, Azerbaijan was subject to myriad invasions, migrations, and cultural and political influences. The land became Islamic territory during the Arab conquest under Omar's caliphate, sometime between 639 and 643. The implementation of Islam in Azerbaijan was not easy for the Arabs. In the 7th century, in a series of conflicts that became known as the "Arab-Khazar wars", the Turks under the banner of the Khazar confederation sought to efface Azerbaijan of an Arab presence. One of the major battles fought between the Turks and Arabs in 7th century Azerbaijan was near the historic city of Ardebil, one of the largest cities of present-day South Azerbaijan.In the 8th century, rebels under the leadership of Babek resisted Arab rule, and started a revolt lasting for close to 25 years. Babek's revolt became known as the "Khuremit Movement." Although Arab garrisons were placed in several strategic towns (Ardebil, Barda, Nakhchivan, Derbent, Maragha), the followers of the Khuremit movement resisted their control. Babek married the Queen and was named King of Azerbaijan. Eventually Babek got betrayed by one of his closest generals and got captured by the Arabs. He was send to execution. Yet the legend of Babek still lives on in contemporary Azerbaijan, in both the northern and southern spheres. To Azerbaijanis, Babek is a symbol of resistance, leadership and loyaltyThe settlement of Arabs in Azerbaijan, and the fact that non-Muslims paid higher taxes, led eventually to the Islamization of most of the Azerbaijani population. After the full establishment of Islam, centuries of prosperity as a province of the Islamic caliphate followed. Much of the Islamic architecture in Azerbaijan was built from the 7th until the 10th century. During this period, many Azerbaijanis would travel to different Arab cities such as Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo for Islamic education.
After the decline of the Arab caliphate, the Oghuz Turks in a series of mass migrations from Central Asia formed a majority in Azerbaijan in the 10th and 11th centuries, during Seljuk rule. The Oghuz Turks were the founders of the Seljuk state, and had recently begun their domination of the area under Seljuk leadership.
The modern statehood, blood, language, literature, culture, garments, dances, folklore and national character of the Azerbaijanis comes from the Oghuz Turks. However, the disunified ancient Turks of the land and their cultural traits were strengthened and revived by the newly arrived Oghuz. As an nationial entity, Azerbaijan did not exist prior to the 20th century.
During the Oghuz migration into Azerbaijan, there was also Oghuz migration into Anatolia (Turkey) and parts of eastern Europe. The name "Seljuk" belonged to a Turkish sultan in central Asia.
Seljuks and modern Azerbaijan
The Seljuk period of Azerbaijan's history set the foundation of its ancient and modern culture and established the modern Azerbaijani-Turk nation.
The Seljuk Atabeks were the governing elite from the 10th-12th centuries. Under their rule, Azerbaijan was characterized by a cultural growth, considered a period of renaissance in Azerbaijan. Palaces of the Ildeniz and the Shirvanshahs hosted distinguished people of the time, many of whom became outstanding Muslim artists and scientists.
Great progress was achieved in mathematics, medicine, chemistry, philosophy, natural science, logic, law, and astronomy. Bakhmanyar, Khatib Tabrizi, Shikhabaddin Sukhravardi and many others were among those scientists.
New characteristic styles and trends in literature and arts arose in the 11th-12th centuries. The Shirvan, Nakhchivan, and Arran architectural schools that established principal features of Azerbaijani medieval architectural style, were founded at that time.
Fortress walls of Baku, Ganja and Absheron were built during this time, and towers, mosques, schools, mausoleums, and bridges, with their distinct and original style, are the most remarkable memorials of the contemporary architecture of that era.
Mongols and Ilkhanid rule
After Atabek rule came the Mongols, who attacked parts of Azerbaijan, but also built architectural sites (especially in the south), and resided in Tabriz and other cities across the nation as rulers.
In 1231, the Mongols occupied most of Azerbaijan and killed Khan Jalaluddin, who had overthrown the Atabek dynasty. In 1235 the Mongols destroyed Ganja, Shamkir, Tovuz, and other cities and fortresses in Azerbaijan. The Mongols, through the Derbend passage in the north, struck a severe blow on the national economy, and Azerbaijanis continually rebelled against them. Being unable to resist the Mongol enemies, the Azerbaijani rebels who fought the Mongols were defeated, yet the long resistance eventually put an end to Mongol supremacy in the region, bringing the local Azerbaijani Turks into power again during the Qara Qoyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and Safavid dynasties in the later centuries.
A major library, reported to contain perhaps 400,000 volumes, was attched to the Maragha observatory (built 1258-1261) in South Azerbaijan under the direction of a major scholar of that time, Nasreddin Tusi (1201-1274).he post-Islamic Turkic migrations into Azerbaijan were fully consolidated with the establishment of the Ilkhanids. Under Mongol rule, more Turks migrated to Azerbaijan to escape invasion in central Asia. The Turks who arrived in the 13th and 14th centuries mostly belonged to the Kipchak Turkic tribes, including the Tatar and Kazak Turkic groups.
Upon his return from the conquest of Baghdad in 1258, Hulegu Khan of the Mongols chose the city of Maragheh as his capital, which became the Ilkhanid center of dominion in Azerbaijan. In this period, Nasir-ad din Tusi erected Maraghe's famous astronomical observatory. When Hulegu's successor Abaqa ascended the Ilkhanid throne, he moved the capital of the empire from Maragheh to Tabriz. Elements of Chingizid law also existed, for Timur in the late 14th century was reported to have given Ibrahim I of Shirvan the yarlik (khan's decree) to rule in Shirvan
New Turkic dynasties
The six Turkic dynasties that came in the following centuries (Qara-Qoyonlu, Aq-Qoyonlu, Safavid, Afshar, Zandi, and Qajar), as well as the existing Shirvanshah Turks in the northern part of Azerbaijan, further developed the country and its national culture. These Turkic dynasties ruled over much of western Asia (Armenia, Dagestan, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Eastern Turkey); they had a great influence on Persian language and culture until the early 20th century.
The Safavids, natives of Ardebil in modern South Azerbaijan within Iran, established their regime in Tabriz in 1501 and based their power on the ideology of Shia Islam. Thus, Shia Islam was imposed on the formerly Sunni population in Iran and Azerbaijan. The Shiaism that was subsequently bestowed on the Azerbaijanis separated them from the Turkic peoples in that era such as the Ottomans and Uzbeks, who were mostly Sunni Muslim.
Shah Abbas, the powerful Safavid King was forced to move his capital from Tabriz to another city Isfahan after attacks by the Ottoman Turks became a series of wars between the Ottoman Turks and the Azerbaijani Turks Safavids based on religious reasons.
The Safavids divided the territory of Azerbaijan into four Beklerbekliks, or administrative areas: Tabriz, Shukhursada (Nakhchivan), Shirvan and Qarabaq.
After the collapse of the Safavid empire, Nadir Shah Afshar (Nadir Guli Bey) was crowned as king of Azerbaijan in 1737. The coronation of Nadir Shah took place in Mugan, in the area of South Azerbaijan (Iran). Nadir Shah had formerly been a commander in the Safavid state, and was from the Afshar tribe of the Turkmen Turks who lived in Khurasan.
After his assassination 10 years later, Azerbaijan was divided into several principalities known as Khanates.
Division of Azerbaijan
Thus, the land of Azerbaijan was divided into a federal system, with the Khanates of: Tabriz, Baku, Quba, Urmiya, Ardebil, Khoy, Sheki, Shamakhi, Qarabaq, Qaradaq, Maku, Maraga and Nakhchivan. Due to its location astride the trade routes connecting Europe to Central Asia and the Near East, and on the shore of the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan was fought over by Russia, Persians, and the Ottoman Turks for several centuries. Finally, the Russians split Azerbaijan's territory with the Qajar dynasty of Persia in 1828 by the Treaty of Turkmenchay, establishing the present frontiers and extinguishing the last native dynasties of local Azerbaijani khans.
At the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, an independent republic was proclaimed in 1918 following an abortive attempt to establish a Transcaucasian Republic with Armenia and Georgia. Azerbaijan received de facto recognition by the Allies as an independent nation in January 1920 - an independence terminated by the arrival of the Red Army in April. Incorporated into the Transcaucasian Federative Soviet Socialist Republic in 1922, Azerbaijan became a union republic of the USSR in 1936. The late 1980s were characterized by increasing unrest, eventually leading to violent confrontation when Soviet troops killed 190 nationalist demonstrators in Baku in January 1990. Azerbaijan declared its independence from the USSR on August 30, 1991.